8. Income taxes

EUR 1,000 2019 2018

Income taxes from business operations -240 -99
Withholding taxes paid abroad -2,887 -3,893
Change in withholding tax accrual -125 70
Income taxes total -3,252 -3,923

The company has not deducted research and development costs amounting to EUR 71,282 (71,282) thousand in its taxation. The amount can be deducted over an indefinite period with amounts that the company may freely decide. The company had tax losses at the end of 2019 EUR 2,391 thousand (0 thousand). Other deductible temporary differences amount to EUR 2 462 (2,418) thousand. No deferred tax assets have been recognised on these capitalisations because of the uncertainty about utilising them.